lunedì 22 settembre 2008

Riall: XX september, the day of rupture

"Voce Repubblicana", 23th september 2008
by Lanfranco Palazzolo
(On right The last Lucy Riall's book)
Anteprima dell'intervista di domani
The Roman Church wanted to pass the XX September 1870 as an act of violence of the emerging Italian state. This explains the "Voce Repubblicana" Lucy Riall, professor of history at Birbeck College, London University, and author of "Garibaldi, the invention of a hero" (Editori Laterza).
Professor Riall, who had brought the XX September 1870 in the history of the Italian Risorgimento?
"It represents the final rupture between Church and State. This break marks the rest of the history of liberal until 1929, the year of the Concordat between the Vatican and fascist. The twentieth September is the end of the residual hope to reach a new agreement between the Italian state and the Pope. But all this was a prerequisite after what had happened between 1848 and 1849, the period of revolution in Italy. From that moment it is clear that the Pope would never have accepted the unification of Italy. After the Roman Republic (1849), the eternal city becomes the subject of dispute between the new state Savoy and the papal state. The capital had symbolic importance for both states.
What does the Pope wanted to give the XX September 1870?
"He wanted to mark this date as a total act of violence against the legitimacy of the pontiff. So, this act was used in subsequent years against the Italian. The nascent state is defined by the Church as a usurper and violent. Indeed, the event has a long history of following in Italy". England saw as the process of Italian unification? Everyone knew that London had good relations with the Catholic Church since 1829 even though Catholics had returned to religious freedom.
"The British saw what was happening in Italy with great enthusiasm for this idea was linked to progress and freedom that the Italians were reached. The British see positively the weakening of Austrians in Europe. London supports any process that supports the decline of Austria. But London has also fear that the unification of Italy increases the power of France. But between the Italians and then to London was a great feeling anti-Catholic. To a large part of British society there was a certain aversion for Catholics. The 'pretismo' was seen as something negative and the Pope was regarded as evil. So the end of the Pope's temporal power was seen as a positive event".
In those years, London feared that the pope could encourage the process of emancipation of the Irish?
"In that moment there was not because the leaders of the movement for autonomy were all Irish Protestants of the South of the island. The Uk Government had no fear of the political power of the Pope, but feared his spiritual power".